Types of Excessive Barking: What is my dog telling me?

First: Keep your dog healthy and happy

Make sure that your dog has enough socialization, exercise, and mental stimulation. Socialize your dog by exposing him or her to many different people, dogs, other animals, other experiences. This will make strange people, dogs, and noises less frightening.

Give your dog plenty of exercise through walks and runs, opportunities to play with other dogs, and activities like chasing and retrieving toys. Give your dog mental stimulation through games like hide-and-seek, tug, fetch, chew toys, chew "puzzles" (toys like Kongs or Buster Cubes, or tied-up-rags stuffed with food that the dog has to work at to get the food out), opportunities to play with people and other dogs, training, and other brain-work.
Why is your dog barking?

Second, figure out why your dog is barking. Is she barking out of boredom? Is it scared barking, in reaction to something that the dog is uncomfortable about? Is it request barking, where the dog is trying to get your attention for something he wants? Or is it alarm barking, alerting the "pack" of intruders?
Boredom Barking

The first type, boredom barking, is the easiest to fix. Simply make sure your dog is not as bored. This does not mean you have to get up in the middle of the night to play with your dog when he barks. It means you need to give your dog more to do by himself when you can't play. These include hiding toys for the dog to find, leaving chew toys, and leaving chew puzzles. There's a fantastic new product called KongTime that will allow you to distribute previously-stuffed Kong toys throughout the day while you're gone - see ProActive Pet Products and be sure to use the special discount code: 0295-OAXD.

Don't run up with a toy when the barking starts, though, since this will just reward the barking. You have to stand over your dog until he stops barking, make him lay down, then reward with a treat. Prevent the barking by keeping your dog occupied. Most continuous barking that happens when the owner is away is this type.

Scared Barking

The second type, scared barking, is fixed by exposing your dog to more things, or in other words, socialization. The more familiar your dog is with mailmen, bicyclists, passing dogs, sirens, loud noises, strange noises, things that loom up suddenly, etc., the less likely your dog will get alarmed when she encounters them. It's never to late to socialize your dog. Make sure that encounters with new things are positive experiences. Reward your dog for calmly accepting new experiences with treats, toys, praise, petting, attention, and food. Be aware that if you try to "comfort" your scared dog, you may unintentionally be rewarding scared behavior. From your tone of voice, the dog might think you're saying, "Good dog! It's right to be scared of that!" when you're really saying, "Don't be scared! It's not so bad!". Some barking that happens when the owner is away is of this type. It's not alarm barking because your dog isn't trying to alert you to a possible danger. Instead, the dog is trying to warn the scary thing away from herself.
Request Barking

Also known as attention-seeking barking. The third type, request barking, is also easy to fix, but requires patience and a strong will. The theory is that the barking will stop when the dog realizes that it's ineffective. So if the dog is barking to get your attention, ignore it. Don't open the door, don't pick up the toy, don't go get the leash. In practice, it's hard to ignore a barking dog, and in fact when you start to ignore it the dog may bark more (at first). Be patient. When the dog finally does realize that barking no longer works, he will try something else. As long as it's something acceptable to you, like lying down (moping), reward it with attention, praise, and a treat (food or a toy). If it's something unacceptable (like pawing you), ignore that, too, until he tries something you like.

The extra attempt at barking when you ignore it is called an "extinction burst" and it's the exact same thing you do to an elevator button when it stops working. Instead of going immediately to the stairs, you push the button again and again, and push harder, before finally giving up.
Alarm Barking

This type, alarm barking, requires actual training -- and lots of patience. You will want to train the dog to bark on command -- and then to stop barking on command. First, find out what can trigger the dog to bark, for example, the doorbell, other dogs passing by, or you standing just out of reach with a favorite toy. Then, work in the following sequence:

1. You give the command, "Bark!"
2. You (or a helper) use the trigger -- ring the doorbell, walk by with another dog, or tease with a toy.
3. Your dog starts barking.
4. Praise your dog (but don't click or give a food reward): "Good bark!"
5. You give the command, "Quiet!"
6. Show your dog a really good, desirable (to the dog) treat and try to get his attention on it.
7. When he eventually is distracted from barking by the treat, praise him for being quiet: "Good quiet!".
8. Keep praising until he's been quiet for 3-5 seconds, then give the very good treat.

Now...start over again from the first step, as soon as possible. Gradually make the quiet times longer, and gradually start playing the game in different locations (at the back door, outside, in the kitchen, etc.).

Think of this sequence as a game. Keep playing it until your dog understands the game: he'll bark when you give "Bark!" command without the trigger, and he'll stop barking when you give the "Quiet!" command without showing him the treat first. If he ever barks after you say "Quiet!" just say "Oh, too bad!" so he understands that his barking cost him a treat.

Don't try using the "Quiet!" command in the real-life situation until you've practiced the Barking Game a lot, and the dog's gotten very good at it. In other words, only try it when you can turn barking on and off again easily. The first time you try it in the real world, for example when someone actually comes to the door, be ready with a really good treat and go back to showing it to the dog to get his attention as you say "Quiet!" (you won't need to give the "Bark!" command, since the person at the door started the barking anyway). Expect a very short period of silence at first, and reward it heavily. If you go to open the door and he starts barking again, start over with "Quiet!" and a good treat. (You might want to put a sign on your door: "We're training Fido not to bark too much. Please be patient; the door will only be opened after he's quiet.")

Until you've practiced the Barking Game a lot, just ignore barking that happens without your command.
Fence-line barking

Many dogs will bark through the fence at people and other dogs passing by. This often starts out as a friendly greeting, when a young puppy is eager to greet those that he sees. This is a strong instinct that dogs have - to investigate strangers and greet them. Over time, however, he learns that his every effort to get the attention of those walking by fails. He begins to associate the view of strangers walking past with the acute frustration he feels. This feeling of frustration is so strong that it acts as a strong aversive, and the dog begins to feel that "strangers walking past" means "discomfort". The barking often changes in tone, and becomes a furious attempt to drive away what the dog now sees as a cause of his own discomfort.

It's best to stop this sort of barking before it starts. Make sure that your dog cannot see strangers going past your property: keep the curtains closed or move furniture away from the window so they can't view out, and if possible put in a solid fence or cover your fence with something the dog cannot see through. Be sure to allow your dog ample opportunities to meet, greet, and play with other dogs at appropriate times.

Note that "barking at the mailman" is slightly different: most dogs feel that they have successfully driven off this "intruder" each day that he visits. "If I hadn't been here to scare him off, that guy would have come in the house and stolen everything. You should be thankful I'm so powerful and fearsome," your dog seems to say. If your mail carrier is willing, the best thing you can do is have him (or her) give a treat to your dog each day (you can leave a bag of them out there for the carrier to use). If that's not possible, you might want to consider installing a mailbox out on the street (if you have one close to the house). Be sure to take your dog around friendly uniformed people (outside of the post office is a good place!) so that your dog gets a lot of experience meeting nice mail carriers.
Barking in Class

Many dogs bark when in a group dog training class situation, and there are many different reasons for it. Dogs might be nervous, and bark at other dogs to tell them to keep their distance. They might be excited, and bark at other dogs to get them to play. Or they might just be barking at the situation in general.

In general, in a dog training class situation, break up eye contact between your dog and another: stand between them, get your dog's attention on you or on a toy or chewie. Keep your dog occupied by practicing commands that he knows, or give him peanut butter smeared on a spoon or in a cup. While he's licking the peanut butter, stroke him gently and slowly from his ears to his tail. Don't accidentally reward him with attention when he barks, but do try to calm him down between barks if he's nervous. If possible move the dog further from others, and ask the instructor if you can set up some sort of visible barrier so your dog can't see the other dogs (but you can still watch the class demonstrations!).

Use calming signals (yawn, turn away, be bored). Use Rescue Remedy. Make sure that you are not nervous. If necessary, use your dog's desire to leave the situation as a reinforcement -- click & step toward the door for non-nervous, focused behavior.

Of course, reward your dog when he's quiet. Use a clicker to capture that moment of silence and really let him know how rewarding quiet attention to you can be with great treats and attention.
Punishment for barking

Please note that punishing your dog for barking won't teach him to not bark. It will only cause a temporary stop. It gives you the opportunity to ask for and reward a behavior you like better, like sitting, lying down, getting a toy, or being quiet. If you just punish the dog, she won't learn that it's wrong to bark, she'll only learn that it's dangerous and scary to bark when you're around. If you reward her for doing something else, she'll learn that it's better for her to do that instead. Note you can reward her for being quiet — in fact, it's essential.

The most effective "punishers" — things that will buy you time to reward something else — are things like squirting the dog with a short spurt of water or using a citronella collar (available in most pet stores). In other words, they startle the dog, not hurt him. As far as the dog knows, he isn't being "bad". He's just doing a natural behavior, and it happens that you don't like it. You want to stop the behavior, not "make the dog pay for it".

Since it's as hard to get a punisher to the dog at the exact moment of the behavior as it is to get a treat to them, pair the punisher with a marker like "No!". The punishment-marker will work just like the reward-marker (the click in click-and-treat) to indicate that that behavior will result in a punishment. (Be sure not to use the No Reward Marker that you have for when they "guess wrong" and lose out on the chance for a treat!).

Learn more about excessive barking along with every other dog behavioral problem by enrolling in our No Nonsense Dog Training Course. There is no need to continue to search the Internet and read dog training books to learn about these behaviors. Let us first teach you about them, then teach you how to eliminate them forever.

To Your Success,

Chad Thompson
Canine Behavior Expert



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